Article copyright by Bob Rogers, Th.D.
(This is the third in a series of articles on predestination.)
On the subject of predestination, the verses in Romans 9 that are central to this discussion are Romans 9:22-23. These verses have been interpreted as teaching “double-edged predestination,” which is an extreme version of hyper-Calvinism that many Calvinists themselves to not take. What exactly is “double-edged predestination”? It is the idea that predestination cuts both ways like a double-edged sword– not only are the saved predestined to be saved, but that the lost are predestined to be lost. Some people interpret Romans 9:22-23 this way, because the verses speak of the “vessels of wrath prepared for destruction” and “vessels of mercy, which he prepared beforehand for glory.” However, what many people miss here, is that Paul describes the vessels of wrath (the lost) and the vessels of mercy (the saved) in different ways in this passage. The Greek grammar in verse 22 describes the “vessels of wrath prepared for destruction” with a perfect participle in the middle or passive voice. Thus it describes the objects of wrath, which refer to the lost, as “having been made ready for destruction,” which may mean they prepared themselves for destruction by their own unbelief. Notice also that God “endured with much patience the vessels of wrath.” In other words, God patiently waited for their free choices, because, as 2 Peter 2:9 says, God is not willing that any be lost. Paul speaks of the lost by implying it is the result of their own choices, which God in His omniscience already knew they would make. (More on that tomorrow.)
However, the Greek grammar is different when referring to the “vessels of mercy” in verse 23. Paul describes the “vessels of mercy” as those “which he has prepared beforehand for glory.” This time, Paul uses the active voice to describe God’s action of salvation. In other words, Paul speaks of the saved as actively being predestined by God. Paul uses the word “beforehand,” to speak of the predestination of the saved, even though he did not use the word “beforehand” when speaking of the lost.
Thus we may speak of the saved as being predestined to be saved, but it is wrong to speak of the lost as being predestined to be lost. Just as God announced the judgment of Nineveh through Jonah, but responded to Nineveh’s repentance with forgiveness, in the same way God announces that all unbelievers are “vessels of wrath,” but if they react with repentance, God, who foreknew they would do so, responds with grace and forgiveness.
Copyright 2013 by Bob Rogers
“Then the Angel of the LORD responded, ‘How long, LORD of Hosts, will You withhold mercy from Jerusalem and the cities of Judah that You have been angry with these 70 years?’ The LORD replied with kind and comforting words to the angel who was speaking with me.” – Zechariah 1:12-13, HCSB
I believe that the person called the Angel of the LORD in this passage is the pre-incarnate Son of God, and that this is a unique example of a prayer of Jesus in the Old Testament.
Notice that He is called “the LORD” in Zechariah 3:2, even though He is called the Angel of the LORD in verse 1 and 4 of that same chapter.
We also see that the Angel of the LORD appears to Abraham in Genesis 22:11-12 yet speaks as God, and appears to Jacob in Genesis 31:11 and wrestles with Jacob in Genesis 32:24-30. In the last passage, Jacob says He saw God face to face. In Daniel 3:24-25, a fourth person appeared in the fiery furnace with the three Hebrews, and one is described as looking “like a son of the gods.” All of this leads many Bible commentators to wonder if these are appearances of Jesus, the Son of God, in the Old Testament.
Another reason why I take Zechariah 1:12 as a prayer of Jesus is the unique wording of the prayer. While we read of angels praising God in Ezekiel 3:12, Luke 2:14, Revelation 15:3-4; 16:5-6, it is unusual for an angel to pray like this, making intercession. However, this prayer fits the prayer and personality of Jesus. Hebrews 7:25 says that Christ always lives to intercede for us, and Matthew 23:37 says that Jesus wept over Jerusalem. In this passage, the Angel of the LORD prays for God to show mercy and forgiveness to the exiles of Jerusalem after 70 years in Babylon.
Notice also how the LORD replies to the prayer of the Angel in Zechariah 1:13: “with kind and comforting words.”
Oh, that Christ might intercede for us, who are His followers, and He does! Oh, what joy to know that the Son prays for mercy for us and the Father replies to that prayer with comforting words!